Question Wording: Fundamentals

Question wording for graphics on “The Fundamentals” page.  Note, question wording has altered slightly between some years.  Experiments have shown no significant different between results obtained with these different wordings.

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believe That Global Warming Has Probably Been Happening

Question wording: (1997-1998, 2006-2011)“You may have heard about the idea that the world’s temperature may have been going up slowly over the past 100 years, What is your personal opinion on this? Do you think this has probably been happening, or do you think it probably has not been happening?”; 2013-2018: “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?”; 2012 (random half of sample): “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up slowly over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?”; 2012 (other half of sample): “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?”

Graph: Of The Americans Who Believe That the Earths Temperature Has Been Going Up, the Percent Who Are Extremely or Very Sure
Question wording: (1997-8, 2006-2011) [For the respondents that answered the world’s temperature has been going up] “How sure are you that the world’s temperature has been going up -extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; (2012-2018) [For the respondents that answered the world’s temperature has been going up]“How sure are you that the worlds’s temperature has been going up over the past 100 years – extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; 2012 [If asked if the world’s temperature has been going up ‘slowly’, the respondents who answered that it is] How sure are you that the world’s temperature has been going up slowly over the past 100 years- extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; 2012 [If asked if the world’s temperature has been going up, the respondents who answered that it is] “How sure are you that the world’s temperature has been going up over the past 100 years- extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”

Graph: Of Those Americans Who Believe That the Earths Temperature Has Not Been Going Up, the Percent Who Are Extremely or Very Sure?
Question wording: (1997-8, 2006-2011) [For the respondents that answered the world’s temperature has not been going up] “How sure are you that the world’s temperature has been going up -extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; (2012-2018) [For the respondents that answered the world’s temperature has not been going up]“How sure are you that the worlds’s temperature has been going up over the past 100 years – extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; 2012 [If asked if the world’s temperature has been going up ‘slowly’, the respondents who answered that it is not] How sure are you that the world’s temperature has been going up slowly over the past 100 years- extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; 2012 [If asked if the world’s temperature has been going up, the respondents who answered that it is not] “How sure are you that the world’s temperature has been going up over the past 100 years- extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?” 

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Think the World’s Temperature Will Probably Go Up Over the Next 100 Years

Question wording: (1997-8, 2010-2018) “If nothing is done to prevent it, do you think the world’s temperature probably will go up over the next 100 years, or do you think the world’s temperature probably will not go up over the next 100 years?”

Graph: Of Those Americans Who Think That the World’s Temperature Will Go Up Over the Next 100 Years, the Percent Who Are Extremely or Very Sure

Question wording: (2013, 2015, 2018) “How sure are you that, if nothing is done to stop it, the world’s temperature probably will go up over the next 100 years, extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; (2012) “How sure are you that, if nothing is done to stop it, the world’s temperature probably will go up [IF SUBSAMPLE_A slowly] over the next 100 years, extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”; (1997, 1998, 2010) “How sure are you that, if nothing is done to stop it, the world’s temperature probably will go up slowly over the next 100 years, extremely sure, very sure, somewhat sure, or not sure at all?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believe That Human Action Has Been at Least Partly Causing Global Warming
Question wording: 2014-2018 [for those who answered global warming has been happening] “If the world’s temperature did increase over the past 100 years, do you think this increase was caused mostly by things people did, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people did and by natural causes?”; [for those who answered global warming has not been happening] “Assuming it’s happening, do you think a rise in the world’s temperature would have been caused mostly by things people do, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people do and by natural causes?”; 2012-2013 [for those who answered global warming has been happening]”Do you think that the increase in the world’s temperature over the past 100 years was caused mostly by things people did, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people did and by natural causes?”; [for those who answered global warming has not been happening]: “If the world’s temperature did increase over the past 100 years, do you think this increase was caused mostly by things people did, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people did and by natural causes?”; 2006-2011 [for those who answered global warming has been happening] “Do you think a rise in the world’s temperature is being caused mostly by things people do, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people do and by natural causes?”; [for those who answered global warming has not been happening] “Assuming it’s happening, do you think a rise in the world’s temperature would be caused mostly by things people do, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people do and by natural causes?”; 1997-8 “Now I’d like to ask you what you think might cause global warming. [for those that did not think global warming was happening include “I realized that you don’t expect global warming to happen, but I would like to ask you what you think might cause it.”] Some people have told us that global warming would be brought about mostly by things people do. Others have said that global warming would be brought about mostly by what nature does itself. Still others think that people and nature would play about equal roles in causing global warming. Which of these views is closest to yours?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believe That a Five Degree Fahrenheit Rise in 75 Years Would Be Bad
Question wording: (1997-8, 2006-2010) “Scientists use the term “global warming” to refer to the idea that the world’s average temperature may be about five degrees Fahrenheit higher in 75 years than it is now. Overall, would you say that if the world’s average temperature is five degrees Fahrenheit higher in 75 years than it is now, would that be good, bad, or neither good nor bad? ; (1997-8, 2006-2010) [for people that answered “neither good nor bad”] “Do you lean toward thinking it would be good, lean toward thinking it would be bad, or don’t you lean either way?”; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) “If the world’s average temperature is about five degrees Fahrenheit higher 75 years from now than it is now, overall, would you say that would be good, bad, or neither good nor bad?; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered “neither good nor bad”] “Do you lean toward thinking it would be good, lean toward thinking it would be bad, or don’t you lean either way?”; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered “good”] “Would you say it would be very good or somewhat good?; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered “bad”] “Would you say it would be very bad or somewhat bad?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believe That Global Warming Will Be a Very or Somewhat Serious Problem for the U.S.
Question wording: (2006-2010) [for respondents that answered global warming is happening] “If nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE UNITED STATES – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”; (2006-2010) [for respondents that answered global warming is not happening] “Assuming it’s happening, if nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE UNITED STATES – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered global warming is happening] “If nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE UNITED STATES – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered global warming is not happening]  “Assuming it’s happening, if nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it would be for THE UNITED STATES – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believe That Global Warming Will Be a Very or Somewhat Serious Problem for the World
Question wording: (2006-2010) [for respondents that answered global warming is happening] “If nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE WORLD – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”; (2006-2010) [for respondents that answered global warming is not happening] “Assuming it’s happening, if nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE WORLD – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered global warming is happening] “If nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE WORLD – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”; (2012, 2013, 2015, 2018) [for respondents that answered global warming is not happening]  “Assuming it’s happening, if nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it would be for THE WORLD – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Think That Global Weather Patterns Have Been More  Unstable Over the Last 3 Years 

Question wording: [random half of sample] ‘As far as you know, would you say that weather patterns around the world have been more stable in the last three years than before that, more unstable, or about the same?’; [other half of sample] ‘As far as you know, would you say that weather patterns around the world have been more unstable in the last three years than before that, more stable, or about the same?’

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Think Average World Temperatures Have Been Higher In the Last Three Years

Question wording: [random half of sample] ‘As far as you know, would you say that average temperatures around the world have been higher in the last three years than before that, lower, or about the same?’; [other half of sample] ‘As far as you know, would you say that average temperatures around the world have been lower in the last three years than before that, higher, or about the same?’

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